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Jugation and Hierarchy

Two chapters of Naphtali Meshel’s The “Grammar” of Sacrifice cover what he calls “jugation” and “hierarchies.”

The first involves the addition of other materials to an animal offering. Jugates include wine, cereal, and oil that are added to the animals (zoemes) that are offered in sacrifice. Some jugates are coordinated with the main sacrifice, whiles others are considered subordinate to the main sacrifice, the animal. The latter is marked grammatically in the Hebrew with the possessive pronoun “its”: An ascension offering… Read More


Naphtali Meshel observes in his new The “Grammar” of Sacrifice that scholars have been talking for decades about the “grammatical” character of ritual and sacrifice in general, but have never actually analyzed a specific ritual or sacrificial system grammatically. Some even talk about a “universal grammar” of sacrifice “even though not one complete grammar of a specific sacrificial system exists” (8). Meshel begins to fill this gap with his analysis… Read More

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We envision a world full of churches that teach the Christian Scriptures as the Word of God in all their power and beauty; churches where the people of God sing Psalms, hymns, and songs in lively worship and eat and drink together each week around the Lord’s table; churches that live in obedience to the Lord Jesus and practice discipline together under the leadership of their pastors; churches whose members share in the mission of the Son and Spirit to bring about God’s kingdom of peace, justice, and love.

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